第116回 WORKSHOP報告(11月21日) / 参加者68名

第116回 WORKSHOP報告(11月21日) / 参加者68名

 

4

(1:今回も多くの新人の方が参加してくださいました)

 

5

(2:前半マテリアル作成者のKさんからご挨拶です)

 

6

(3:後半のネイティブ講師がチェアを行う上級テーブルの様子です)

 

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《 今回のworkshop 》

 

○workshop参加人数:68名(うち新人の方:12名)

 

○【前半】:“Let’s talk about our given names”というテーマでディスカッション

 

○【後半】:” The Risks and Rewards of Genetic Engineering “というテーマでディスカッション

 

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<英語サークル E’s club 第116回workshopのご案内>

 

 

 

みなさまこんばんは、E’s club幹事のKです。

 

11月21日(土)開催の第116回workshopの詳細をお送りいたします。

 

今回もネイティブ講師のE先生をお迎えしてのworkshopとなります。

 

E先生には後半のマテリアルをご作成いただきました。

 

前半のマテリアルはKさんにご作成いただきました。

 

タイトルは” Let’s talk about our given names”です。

 

[今週のマテリアル]

 

<FIRST HALF>

 

今回前半のマテリアルを担当させていただきますKと申します。

 

私は特許事務所で弁理士(patent attorney)として働いておりますが、この弁理士という職業、残念ながらあまり知られていないように思います。

 

数年前、そんな弁理士の一人である茅原祐二さんが、「佐藤さんはなぜいっぱいいるのか?」(http://pubca.net/warashibe/)という本を出版されました。

 

確かに佐藤さんはいっぱいいるのですが、特に大きな問題にはなりません。

 

なぜなら、私たちは一人の佐藤さんとその他大勢の佐藤さんたちを区別できるからです(弁理士の世界では、他のものと区別できることを「識別力がある」(distinctive)と言ったりします)。

 

では、どのように区別しているのか?

 

答えはたくさんあるのですが、最も重要なものの一つは名前を使うことだと思います。

 

ということで、今回は名前について考えていきたいと思います。

 

テーマは「Let’s talk about our given names」です。

 

 

 

Q1. Please explain what your given name means in English.  If you know the reason why your parents have given you such a given name, please share it with the group members.

 

 

 

Q2. Do you like your given name?  Why?  Why not?  If possible, would you change your given name?

 

 

 

Q3. Do you think that your name is distinctive enough?  Have’nt you ever met the person who has the same family and given names as yours?

 

 

 

Q4. It can be said that so called “kirakira names” are distinctive in a way.  What do you think about them?  If you were a parent, would you give your children kirakira names?  Why?  Why not?

 

 

 

Q5. Mr. Osamu Hayashi (Japanese teacher at Toshin High School) has written in one of his books:

 

I said “A name is just a tool to distinguish someone from others.  So, 1st Hayashi, 2nd Hayashi and 3rd Hayashi are sufficient.”, and one of my colleagues said “They are not necessary, either.  A328 is OK to me.”.

 

What do you think about their opinions?

 

『いつやるか? 今でしょ!』(林修著/宝島社)より引用。

 

 

 

【「単なる分類語なんだから、林一番、二番、三番で十分だよ」

 

僕がそう言うと彼は、

 

「それさえ必要ないなぁ。僕はA328でかまいませんよ」】

 

 

 

設問の便宜上、意訳しています。下手くそな訳ですいません。

 

 

 

Q6. Other than given names, what can we use to distinguish one Sato-san from other Sato-sans?

 

 

 

 

 

<LATTER HALF>

 

The Risks and Rewards of Genetic Engineering

 

 

 

ⅰ. Reading homework – http://www.bionetonline.org/english/content/ff_tool.htm

 

ⅱ. Video for listening practice – (turn on CC for transcription of the video) – http://youtu.be/dKBfxoPnT7g

 

 

 

1. What are the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) food?

 

a. Higher production

 

b. More resistant to drought or disease

 

2. Do you think it’s safe to eat genetically modified foods?  Why or why not?

 

3. Genetically engineering animals – We have bred animals and plants together since pre-historic times to create stronger, bigger, faster animals.

 

a. How is genetically engineering animals different from long term breeding programs?

 

b. Is it ethical to genetically modify animals for scientific or commercial purposes?

 

4. Genetic modification of humans

 

a. What are the pros and cons of human genetic modification?

 

b. Scientists at getting closer and closer to being able to alter genetic code in animals and humans.  What do you think are some of the biggest moral questions we need to consider?

 

c. Do you think genetic modification will become as ‘normal’ as plastic surgery someday?

 

d. Will genetic modification be able to eliminate or significantly reduce diseases like   cancer or diabetes in the future?

 

e. Will genetic engineering create ‘genetic classes’ in the future?  For example, will rich people be able to genetically engineer themselves and their children while poor people will have to live as they were born?

 

 

 

http://www.bionetonline.org/english/content/ff_tool.htm

 

How is it done?

 

How to produce an insect resistant tomato plant?

 

 

 

What are genes, and where are they found?

 

There are genes in everything that lives, or has lived. There are genes in people, flies, ham, tomatoes, bacteria etc. A 200g steak contains 750,000,000,000,000 genes.

 

 

 

A gene is a code that governs how we appear and what characteristics we have. There are, for example, genes which decide whether we have blue or brown eyes. We receive half of our genes from our mother, the other half from our father.

 

 

 

Plants have genes too. Genes decide the colour of flowers, and how tall a plant can grow. Like people, the characteristics of a plant will be transferred to its children- the plant seeds, which grow into new plants.

 

 

 

What is genetic modification?

 

Genetic modification changes the genes and thereby the characteristics of the subject. You can, for example, genetically modify strawberries so that they stay fresh for longer, and rice can be genetically modified so that it has a higher vitamin content.

 

 

 

When a scientist genetically modifies a plant, they insert a foreign gene in the plant’s own genes. This might be a gene from a bacterium resistant to pesticide, for example. The result is that the plant receives the characteristics held within the genetic code. Consequently, the genetically modified plant also becomes able to withstand pesticides.

 

 

 

With genetic modification it is possible to transfer genes from one species to another. This is because all genes, be they human, plant, animal or bacterial are created from the same material. Genetic scientists therefore have a huge amount of genetic characteristics to choose from.

 

 

 

How does a genetic scientist work?

 

Genetic modification of plants occurs in several stages:

 

 

 

1.  The scientist finds and isolates the gene with the desired genetic characteristics. This process is called mapping.

 

2.  The scientist makes several copies of the isolated gene. The copying process is called PCR.

 

3.  The scientist transfers the desired genes to the plant’s own genes (using a piece of plant tissue). When the scientist wishes to insert the desired genes into the plant – there are 3 options. He or she can use a ‘gene canon’, a soil bacteria or a material called protoplast. The methods of gene insertion are called ‘transformation’.

 

4.  The scientist creates a new plant from the genetically modified plant tissue.

 

5.  The scientist checks that the inserted genes function as expected.

 

6.  The scientist also checks that the inserted gene appears in the plant’s progeny, that is – in the seeds.

 

 

 

How do we know if the genetic modification has succeeded?

 

Only rarely can one see whether a plant or animal has been genetically modified, with the naked eye. Scientists have therefore developed some techniques to assist them.

 

 

 

For example – a special colour test can identify whether a plant is genetically modified. At the time when the plant is genetically modified, the scientist inserts an extra marker gene into the plant. The marker gene can have different characteristics, for example, it can make the plant change colour when exposed to a chemical test.

 

 

 

In this way, scientists can identify whether the plant has been genetically modified or not by performing a chemical test and noting the colour of the plant.

 

 

 

What is the difference between genetic modification and traditional processing?

 

Long before the discovery of genetic modification, farmers have improved their crops by what we today call “traditional processing”.

 

 

 

Processing is when one crosses the best, largest, most attractive or best tasting samples of a certain species with each other in order to get a plant or animal, that is even better, larger, more attractive or better tasting.

 

 

 

In traditional processing genes are transferred from one plant to another. This is also the case with genetic modification – however the way in which it is done is very different.

 

 

 

Genetic modification is a more precise technique, where one can be exact in transferring the desired characteristics. In traditional processing one cannot avoid the possibility that other characteristics may also be transferred.

 

 

 

In traditional processing, characteristics can only be exchanged between species which are the same or very similar. In genetic modification, characteristics can be transferred from one species to a quite different one, even between plants and animals.

 

 

 

Genetic modification is less time-consuming than traditional processing.

 

 

 

In what other ways can genes be altered?

 

Not only genetic modification can be used to change animal and plant genes.

 

 

 

Spontaneous changes, radiation, chemicals and traditional processing can also alter the characteristics of a plant or animal.

 

 

 

Spontaneous alteration of genes takes place naturally and sometimes with no effect. A spontaneous alteration can lead to the development of both positive and negative characteristics. The method is not particularly good if the intention is to create specific changes.

 

 

 

Radiation and chemicals can be used in order to effect gene alteration. Both elements are sometimes used in plant processing.

 

 

 

In traditional processing closely related plant or animals are crossed. It might be maize and navew or a horse and a donkey. In this way different combinations of genes occur in the progeny. Those with desirable characteristics are selected over several generations. The crops and livestock we see today are a result of traditional processing.

 

 

 

Can everything be genetically modified?

 

Yes. In principle anything that lives can be genetically modified – animals, people, plants and bacteria.

 

 

 

You can in other words transfer characteristics from a fish to a strawberry. But the less alike the species are, the more difficult it is. It is easiest to genetically modify related species.

 

 

 

Not all characteristics can be transferred. Some characteristics occur only by interaction between many genes. Only rarely do scientists have a good enough view of this interaction to be able to recreate it.

 

 

 

At the moment, scientists are working intensely on mapping genes in humans and pigs. Perhaps it will give them sufficient knowledge and vision so that in the future they can create even more complicated genetic modifications than today.

 

 

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