第203回 WORKSHOP報告(9月7日) /参加者43名

《 今回のworkshop 》
○【前半】:Think about “Work Style Reform” deeply
○【後半】:Tattoos – A way of life / Tattoos in onsens

Think about “Work Style Reform” deeply

The reason I picked up the theme
The other day, I was watching the YouTube video made by Yoshihito Kamogashira who works as a teacher for teaching how to speak. He spoke about “Work Style Reform” in this video. He said that “Work Style Reform” which government was tackling was only making work-time short. The authentic purpose was that making situation where employees could enjoy their work. And then, he said we should do “Work Style Reform” by ourselves.
I have never thought about “Work Style Reform” deeply, but his speech made an impact on me.
There is another episode which left an impression on me. I talked about work-environment with my friends when I went back to my hometown on Obon holiday. One friend said he had to work at a part-time job at a delivery company for a living after regular work. That is because, work overtime has been prohibited due to “Work Style Reform”. He was paid for overtime before.
I wonder “Work Style Reform” is working properly for both employees and employers.
For these reasons, I decided to choose “Work Style Reform” as a topic in E’s club. Also, I would like to know what others are thinking about the word.

Body sentence
A law called “Work Style Reform” was enforced as of 1st April 2019. It has gotten mandatory for us to take 5 paid leaves in a year because of the law.
We have already heard the word many times before getting the law enforced. Some companies have been introducing some rules as “Flex time”, “Telework” and “Premium Friday”. Thanks to the systems, it seems that people feel like they can work comfortably compared with previous work style.
Come to think of it, however, I wonder how many people know what purposes and background of “Work Style Reform” are.
According to the government’s homepage, the objective of the law is “to increase the birthrate”, “to increase productivity”, and “to increase the number of workers”, whereas the labor force decreases as the population declines.
On top of that, government made three fundamental policies to achieve their aim as follows; to reduce prolonged work, to correct the gap between regular staff and non-regular staff, to foster elder people work.
Companies are trying to make their original rules based on government policy. However, have they worked so far? Have the rules gotten work time short? Has work productivity increased? There are some remains questionable.
Today, I would like you to share with everybody your thoughts and ideas concerning “Work Style Reform”. And then, I would be grateful if you could make an innovative/interesting idea to get employees work comfortably and make company’s profit raise.
Anything is fine. Let’s improve workplace by ourselves!!

1) Are you satisfied with your work environment? (5minutes)
If you are a student, could you describe what you ask for workplace?

2) Could you share with everyone rules/policies/regulation in your workplace? (5minutes)

3) What are the benefits and drawbacks of “Work Style Reform” for employees? (5minutes)

4) What are the benefits and drawbacks of “Work Style Reform” for employer? (5minutes)

5) Could you make a rule to improve a workplace? (10minutes)
Please indicate “target”, “objective” and “content” when you make a short presentation. And please pick up an objective from three points below;
(1) To reduce prolonged work
(2) To correct the gap between regular staff and non-regular staff
(3) To foster elder people work
※Presentation time: 1.5 minutes per group

Movie (Japanese):日本マイクロソフト
Work Style Reform showcase of Microsoft Japan

Article (English):Konica Minolta promotes work-style reforms and improved communication with Microsoft Team

Article (Japanese):【ニュースの深層】「働き方改革」は誰のためか 企業と従業員にあるギャップ

Article (Japanese):「労働時間が65%から63%に減れば、2%幸せになるのが“働き方改革”? ふざけるな」鴨頭嘉人YouTubeチャンネルより

Tattoos – A way of life / Tattoos in onsens

1. How do you feel when you see somebody with a lot of tattoos?

2. Do you have any tattoos?
If so, tell us how and why you got them. Was it painful?
If not, would you ever consider getting a tattoo? Why or why not?

3. If your son or daughter asked that they wanted a tattoo, how would you react?

4. What do you think of allowing people with tattoos to enter onsens?

5. Do you think the rules restricting tattooed people from entering onsens will change, or will the rules continue in the same way?

6. Should rules be the same for locals and foreigners, or should there be different rules?

7. Give an opinion about the YouTube video, and what Dwayne Johnson (The Rock) has to say about the subject.

<Reference A>
Tattoos – A way of life
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment. The art of making tattoos is tattooing.
Tattoos fall into three broad categories: purely decorative (with no specific meaning); symbolic (with a specific meaning pertinent to the wearer); pictorial (a depiction of a specific person or item). In addition, tattoos can be used for identification such as ear tattoos on livestock as a form of branding.
The word tattoo, or tattow in the 18th century, is a loanword from the Samoan word tatau, meaning “to strike”. (Oxford English Dictionary gives the etymology of tattoo in 18th c. from Polynesia, Samoan, Tahiti, Tonga, Hawaii.) Before the importation of the Polynesian word, the practice of tattooing had been described in the West as painting.
Mainstream art galleries hold exhibitions of both conventional and custom tattoo designs, such as Beyond Skin, at the Museum of Croydon.
Copyrighted tattoo designs that are mass-produced and sent to tattoo artists are known as “flash”, a notable instance of industrial design.
Flash sheets are prominently displayed in many tattoo parlors for the purpose of providing both inspiration and ready-made tattoo images to customers.

Subcultural connotations
Many tattoos serve as rites of passage, marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, sexual lures and marks of fertility, pledges of love, amulets and talismans, protection, and as punishment, like the marks of outcasts, slaves and convicts. The symbolism and impact of tattoos varies in different places and cultures. Tattoos may show how a person feels about a relative (commonly mother/father or daughter/son) or about an unrelated person.
Today, people choose to be tattooed for artistic, cosmetic, sentimental/memorial, religious, and magical reasons, and to symbolize their belonging to or identification with particular groups, including criminal gangs or a particular ethnic group or law-abiding subculture.

Cosmetic – Permanent Makeup
The use of tattoos to enhance eyebrows, lips (liner and/or lipstick), eyes (liner), and even moles, usually with natural colors, as the designs are intended to resemble makeup.
A growing trend in the US and the UK is to place artistic tattoos over the surgical scars of a mastectomy. “More women are choosing not to reconstruct after a mastectomy and tattoo over the scar tissue instead… The mastectomy tattoo will become just another option for post cancer patients and a truly personal way of regaining control over post cancer bodies…”However, the tattooing of nipples on reconstructed breasts remains in high demand.
Functional tattoos are used primarily other than aesthetics. One as such to tattoo Alzheimer patients with their names, to be easily identified if they go missing.
Because it requires breaking the skin barrier, tattooing carries health risks including infection and allergic reactions. Tattooing can be uncomfortable to excruciating depending on the area and can result in the person fainting. Modern tattooists reduce risks by following universal precautions working with single-use items and sterilizing their equipment after each use. Many jurisdictions require that tattooists have blood-borne pathogen training such as that provided through the Red Cross and OSHA. As of 2009 (in the US) there have been no reported cases of HIV contracted from tattoos.
In amateur tattooing, such as that practiced in prisons, however, there is an elevated risk of infection. Infections that can theoretically be transmitted by the use of unsterilized tattoo equipment or contaminated ink include surface infections of the skin, fungal infections, some forms of hepatitis, herpes, HIV, staph, tetanus, and tuberculosis.

Tattoo Removals
While tattoos are considered permanent, it is sometimes possible to remove them, fully or partially, with laser treatments. Typically, black and some colored inks can be removed more completely than inks of other colors. The expense and pain associated with removing tattoos are typically greater than the expense and pain associated with applying them. Pre-laser tattoo removal methods include dermabrasion, salabrasion (scrubbing the skin with salt), cryosurgery and excision-which is sometimes still used along with skin grafts for larger tattoos. These older methods, however, have been nearly completely replaced by laser removal treatment options.

<Phrases for Reference B>
・body art – another term for tattoo
・unspoken etiquette – rules that aren’t directly written, but people follow
・closely dictates – controls
・every stitch of clothing – absolutely all clothing
・issued reassurances – sent messages to make them feel safe

<Reference B>
Japan’s hot springs asked to allow tattooed foreigners
Elaine Yu, CNN Updated 29th March 2016

Naked, tattooed foreigners may soon become a less unusual sight in Japan’s public baths.
Tourism officials in Japan are urging onsens (hot springs) to relax rules restricting body art wearers from entering their steamy waters. Traditional onsens have long been governed by an unspoken etiquette that closely dictates behavior:
— Bodies must be carefully washed before entering.
— Every stitch of clothing must be removed. Even towels.
— And tattoos are considered unacceptable.

Traditional Japanese tattoos, which cover large swaths of skin, are commonly associated with the yakuza, the country’s organized crime syndicates. And people with body art are often turned away for fear of scaring off others looking for a quiet soak or a restorative ritual.

Now the Japan Tourism Agency has asked for the rules to be relaxed for foreigners as visitor numbers to the country continue to rise.

“We don’t put up ‘no tattoo’ signs, but we do ask them to refrain from using our baths if their tattoos cover large parts of their bodies and can’t be concealed by a sticker,” a manager at Yamagishi Ryokan, a hot spring in Yamanashi prefecture popular with foreign tourists, tells CNN.

“We treat locals with tattoos the same way we treat foreigners. But no Japanese covered in tattoos has tried to come in — I believe they’re totally aware of the rules.”

The official guidance, released last week, suggests asking patrons to cover their tattoos with a sticker or use a private bath.

Seeking to improve awareness, the agency has issued reassurances to bath owners. It explained that there are often religious, cultural, aesthetic or other choices behind the body modification practice and the ink doesn’t pollute the baths.

CNN’s Junko Ogura contributed to this report, originally published in March 2016.