第202回 WORKSHOP報告(8月24日) /参加者40名

《 今回のworkshop 》

Title: Demonstrations

Currently, two huge demonstrations are shaking the governments in the world.
One is “Yellow vests movement” in France, and the other is “Anti-extradition bill protests” in Hong Kong.
Numerous citizens stood up against the governments and occupied streets, which became big news in the world.
Anybody can join and organize demonstrations, so it often works as an effective way to deliver messages of socially weak people to the government.
However, demonstrations sometimes result in violent conflicts and cause chaos in the society.
Anybody can be involved in a demonstration, so let’s think about this issue this time together.

1. Have you ever participated in or encountered any demonstration?
Share your experiences.
2. What kind of impressions do you have about demonstrations?
List the positive and negative sides of demonstrations.
3. Do you think radical and violent demonstrations are needed to reform the society?
4. If you are an organizer, what kind of demonstration do you want to organize?
Share the ideas with other groups.

Yellow vests movement
This movement started since last December, against the rise of fuel price. The French government put high tax on fuels in order to accelerate achieving decarbonized society. However, rapid increase of fuel price hit the working- and middle-class people, which caused high cost of living price, especially in rural areas. The protesters are calling for low tax on fuels, high tax on wealthy people and minimum wage increase. This movement is called “yellow vests movement” because the protesters wore yellow vest as a symbol of working class. Nearly 300,000 protesters joined this movement, and 11 people are dead, and 4000 people are injured during this movement.

Anti-extradition bill protests
This protest started since March, against the extradition bill which allows crime suspects in Hong Kong to be sent for trials to Mainland of China with simple procedure. If this bill passes the congress of Hong Kong, not only criminal suspects but undesired citizens for Chinese government such as journalists and political activists in Hong Kong could be sent for trials to Mainland of China. Hong Kong citizens fear the erosion of Hong Kong’s legal system by Chinese government and strongly oppose to this bill. Around 2 million people joined the protest, and 4 people are dead, and around 200 people are injured so far.

Recently, I feel that cashless movement is occurring in Japan. My company asks customer to pay through a bank transfer instead of paying by cash or check due to efficient work. Paying by cash or check takes double time to deal with it comparing from transferring money. Therefore, there are some e-pay (ex. Google pay, Apple pay, Paypay, etc) and some shops show that they accept e-pay. But, I don’t use it because I don’t know it’s safe to use it or not. I would like to know what other people feel toward this movement. That’s why I chose this topic.
I would like to share your opinion about question#2. Please write it down on the distributed paper and bring it to me at 20:10. I’ll introduce it to you.

1. Do you use digital payments(ex. Google pay, Apple pay, Line pay)? Why and why not?
2. What do you think about recent cashless movement?
3. Please enumerate the merit of cashless society.
4. Please enumerate the demerit of cashless society
5. Japan is not cashless society comparing from other countries like United States, China, and Sweden. What are the reasons for this?


The Pros and Cons of Moving to a Cashless Society

Updated June 25, 2019
A cashless society might sound like something out of science fiction, but we’re already on our way. Several powerful forces are behind the move to a cash-free world, including governments and large financial services companies. Even critics of the mainstream financial system and government-issued currencies favor doing away with cash.
But we’re not there yet. In addition to logistical challenges, we need to address several social issues before giving up on cash entirely. The benefits and disadvantages below can give you an idea of the myriad of effects going cashless can have on money and banking as you know it.
・Lower crime because there’s no tangible money to steal
・Less money laundering because there’s always a paper trail
・Less time and costs associated with handling paper money as well as storing and depositing it
・Easier currency exchange while traveling internationally
・Exposes your personal information to a possible data breach
・If hackers drain your bank account, you’ll have no alternative source of money
・Technology problems can leave you with no access to your money
・The poor and those without bank accounts will have difficulty paying and receiving payments
・Some may find it harder to control spending when they don’t see physical cash leaving their hands
・Banks may start charging fees to compensate for possible negative interest rates
Benefits of a Cashless Society
Less crime: With cash, it’s easy to steal money, whether the amount is large or small. Also, illegal transactions (drug trade, for example) typically take place with cash so that there’s no record of the transaction – and so that the seller can be certain about getting paid.
Paper trails: Financial crime should also dry up. It is harder to hide income and evade taxes when there’s a record of every payment you receive. Money laundering becomes much harder if the source of funds is always available.
No cash management: It costs money to print bills and coins. Businesses need to store the money, get more when they run out, and deposit cash when they have too much on hand. Moving money around and protecting large sums of cash could become a thing of the past.
International payments: When you visit a foreign country, you may need to buy local currency. But payments are easy if both nations can handle cashless transactions. Instead of figuring out another currency, your mobile device handles everything for you.
Disadvantages of a Cash-Free World
Depending on your perspective, going cashless might actually be problematic.
Privacy: Electronic payments mean less privacy. You might trust the organizations that handle your data, and you might have nothing to hide, but your payment information could turn up in ways that are impossible to predict. Cash allows you to spend money and receive funds anonymously.
Hacking: Hackers are the bank robbers and muggers of the electronic world. In a cashless society, the consequences are higher if somebody drains your account because you don’t have any alternative ways to spend. Even if you’re protected under federal law, you face significant inconveniences and other consequences after a breach.
Technology problems: Glitches, outages, and innocent mistakes can also cause problems, leaving you without the ability to buy things when you need them. Likewise, merchants have no way to accept payments from customers when systems malfunction. Even something as simple as a dead phone battery could leave you “penniless.”
Inequality: The poor and unbanked will have an even harder time in a cashless society. They don’t have expensive devices for making payments, and those who operate in the informal economy would have no way to get paid or receive aid. The U.K. is experimenting with contactless ways to donate to charities and homeless individuals, but there’s still a long way to go.
Fees, Fees, Fees: If we’re forced to choose from just a few payment methods, can we expect financial institutions to give us a fantastic deal? Payment processors may just cash in on the high volumes, eliminating the savings that should come from less cash handling.
Overspending: When you spend with cash, you feel the “pain” of every dollar you spend. But with electronic payments, it’s easy to swipe, tap, or click without noticing how much you spend. Consumers will need to renew their efforts to manage spending.
Negative interest rates: When all money is electronic, if the government charges banks a negative interest rate, they can pass it on to customers (in the form of fees) who will no longer have any cash to pull out and stuff into a proverbial mattress to avoid the negative rates. Dropping the interest rate is typically a move to stimulate an economy, but the result is that money loses purchasing power.

What Does a Zero-Cash World Look Like?
Without cash, payments happen electronically. Instead of using paper and coins to exchange value, you authorize a transfer of funds to another person or business. The logistics are still developing, but we have some hints on how a cashless society might evolve.
・Credit cards and debit cards are among the most popular cash alternatives in use today. But cards alone aren’t enough. Mobile devices will most likely become a primary tool for payments.
・Electronic payment apps, like Zelle, PayPal, and Venmo, are helpful for P2P payments.
・Mobile payment services and mobile wallets like Apple Pay provide secure, cash-free payments. In developing and developed nations that use cash sparingly, mobile devices are the most common tools for payments.
・Cryptocurrencies are also part of the discussion: They’re already used for money transfers, and they introduce competition and innovation that may help keep costs low. But they currently have risks and regulatory hurdles that make them impractical for most consumers, so they might not be right for widespread use.
Examples of Cashless Societies
Several nations are already making moves to eliminate cash, with the push coming from both consumers and government bodies. Sweden and India are two notable examples.
Sweden: It’s not uncommon to see signs that say “No cash accepted” in Swedish shops, and some banks no longer handle cash. Cash payments are only 15 percent of retail sales in Sweden, and some point to Sweden as the model for a modern cashless society. Consumers are mostly happy with this situation, but the poor and elderly still struggle with an electronic world.
India: The Indian government banned 500 and 1,000 rupee notes in November of 2016 in an effort to penalize criminals and those working in the informal economy. The implementation was rushed and controversial, and roughly 99 percent of those banknotes were deposited – meaning criminals didn’t lose much, if any, money. Electronic transactions increased temporarily, but fell to pre-demonetization levels in the next year.
Those examples suggest that going cashless is possible with sufficient infrastructure and gradual progress. The remaining questions center on how the marginalized will fare when cash is history.