第194回 WORKSHOP報告(4月6日) / 参加者36名

《 今回のworkshop 》
○【前半】:Unwritten rules
○【後半】:Tattoos – A way of life


Unwritten rules

I like listening to NHK English radio, especially “Jissen business Eigo(Business communication in action).
So, I listen to it every week and enjoy it, because its topics are always interesting.
I sometimes use it for material and this time too.
Unwritten rules are common sense, manner or etiquette.
These are sometimes hard to recognize it for people who have different culture or outsider: like new people.
Spring is a season of farewells and meeting new people.
Some people will start new life from this spring and new people may come to your company.
We have to tell unwritten rules to those people. That’s why I chose this topic.
Please decide the most interesting unwritten rules and write it down on the distributed paper and bring it to me at 19:00. I’ll introduce it to you.

Q1. What kind of impression do you have towards the word “unwritten rules”?
Q2. Please share your family’s unwritten rules.
Q3. Please share your company’s unwritten rules.
Q4. Please enumerate unwritten rules of Japan. If you were confused by it, please share your experience.
Q5. Please enumerate unwritten rules of foreign countries. If you were confused by it, please share your experience.
Q6. Please decide the most interesting unwritten rules in your table and write it down on the distributed paper.

33 Unwritten Rules Everyone Needs To Follow

Tattoos – A way of life

Discussion Questions

・How do you feel when you see somebody with a lot of tattoos, what do you think?
・Do you have any tattoos?
・If so, tell us how and why you got them. Was it painful?
・If not, would you ever consider getting a tattoo? Why or why not?
・If your son or daughter asked that they wanted a tattoo, how would you react?
・Some people have tattoos in sensitive parts of their bodies.
・What do you think of such practices?
・Do you think that they are natural, attractive, sexy, weird or ugly?

Tattoos – A way of life
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment. The art of making tattoos is tattooing.
Tattoos fall into three broad categories: purely decorative (with no specific meaning); symbolic (with a specific meaning pertinent to the wearer); pictorial (a depiction of a specific person or item). In addition, tattoos can be used for identification such as ear tattoos on livestock as a form of branding.
The word tattoo, or tattow in the 18th century, is a loanword from the Samoan word tatau, meaning “to strike”. (Oxford English Dictionary gives the etymology of tattoo in 18th c. from Polynesia, Samoan, Tahiti, Tonga, Hawaii.) Before the importation of the Polynesian word, the practice of tattooing had been described in the West as painting.
Mainstream art galleries hold exhibitions of both conventional and custom tattoo designs, such as Beyond Skin, at the Museum of Croydon.
Copyrighted tattoo designs that are mass-produced and sent to tattoo artists are known as “flash”, a notable instance of industrial design.
Flash sheets are prominently displayed in many tattoo parlors for the purpose of providing both inspiration and ready-made tattoo images to customers.

Traumatic tattoos
A traumatic tattoo occurs when a substance such as asphalt is rubbed into a wound as the result of some kind of accident or trauma. Coal miners could develop characteristic tattoos owing to coal dust getting into wounds. This can also occur with substances like gunpowder. These are particularly difficult to remove as they tend to be spread across several layers of skin, and scarring or permanent discoloration is almost unavoidable depending on the location. An amalgam tattoo is when amalgam particles are implanted in to the soft tissues of the mouth, usually the gums, during dental filling placement or removal. Another example of such accidental tattoos is the result of a deliberate or accidental stabbing with a pencil or pen, leaving graphite or ink beneath the skin.

Subcultural connotations
Many tattoos serve as rites of passage, marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, sexual lures and marks of fertility, pledges of love, amulets and talismans, protection, and as punishment, like the marks of outcasts, slaves and convicts. The symbolism and impact of tattoos varies in different places and cultures. Tattoos may show how a person feels about a relative (commonly mother/father or daughter/son) or about an unrelated person.
Today, people choose to be tattooed for artistic, cosmetic, sentimental/memorial, religious, and magical reasons, and to symbolize their belonging to or identification with particular groups, including criminal gangs or a particular ethnic group or law-abiding subculture.

Identification – Forcibly Tattooed
A well-known example is the Nazi practice of forcibly tattooing concentration camp inmates with identification numbers during the Holocaust as part of the Nazis’ identification system, beginning in fall 1941.
The practice at concentration camps in order to identify the bodies of registered prisoners in the concentration camps. During registration, guards would pierce the outlines of the serial-number digits onto the prisoners’ arms. Of the Nazi concentration camps, only put tattoos on inmates. The tattoo was the prisoner’s camp number, sometimes with a special symbol added: some Jews had a triangle, and Romani had the letter “Z” (from German Zigeuner for “Gypsy”).
In 1944, the Jewish men received the letters “A” or “B” to indicate series of numbers.
Tattoos have also been used for identification in other ways. As early as Chinese authorities would employ facial tattoos as a punishment for certain crimes or to mark prisoners or slaves. During the Roman Empire, gladiators and slaves were tattooed: exported slaves were tattooed with the words “tax paid”, and it was a common practice to tattoo “Stop me, I’m a runaway” on their foreheads. Owing to the Biblical scriptures against the practice, the Emperor banned tattooing the face around AD 330, and the Second Council banned all body markings as a pagan practice in AD 787.
In the period of early contact between the Maori and Europeans, the Maori people hunted and decapitated each other for their tattoos, which they traded for European items including axes and firearms. Maori tattoos were facial designs worn to indicate lineage, social position, and status within the tribe. The tattoo art was a sacred marker of identity among the Maori and also referred to as a vehicle for storing one’s spiritual being, in the afterlife.

Cosmetic – Permanent Makeup
The use of tattoos to enhance eyebrows, lips (liner and/or lipstick), eyes (liner), and even moles, usually with natural colors, as the designs are intended to resemble makeup.
A growing trend in the US and the UK is to place artistic tattoos over the surgical scars of a mastectomy. “More women are choosing not to reconstruct after a mastectomy and tattoo over the scar tissue instead… The mastectomy tattoo will become just another option for post cancer patients and a truly personal way of regaining control over post cancer bodies…”However, the tattooing of nipples on reconstructed breasts remains in high demand.
Functional tattoos are used primarily other than aesthetics. One as such to tattoo Alzheimer patients with their names, to be easily identified if they go missing.
Because it requires breaking the skin barrier, tattooing carries health risks including infection and allergic reactions. Tattooing can be uncomfortable to excruciating depending on the area and can result in the person fainting. Modern tattooists reduce risks by following universal precautions working with single-use items and sterilizing their equipment after each use. Many jurisdictions require that tattooists have blood-borne pathogen training such as that provided through the Red Cross and OSHA. As of 2009 (in the US) there have been no reported cases of HIV contracted from tattoos.
In amateur tattooing, such as that practiced in prisons, however, there is an elevated risk of infection. Infections that can theoretically be transmitted by the use of unsterilized tattoo equipment or contaminated ink include surface infections of the skin, fungal infections, some forms of hepatitis, herpes, HIV, staph, tetanus, and tuberculosis.

Tattoo Removals
While tattoos are considered permanent, it is sometimes possible to remove them, fully or partially, with laser treatments. Typically, black and some colored inks can be removed more completely than inks of other colors. The expense and pain associated with removing tattoos are typically greater than the expense and pain associated with applying them. Pre-laser tattoo removal methods include dermabrasion, salabrasion (scrubbing the skin with salt), cryosurgery and excision-which is sometimes still used along with skin grafts for larger tattoos. These older methods, however, have been nearly completely replaced by laser removal treatment options.