第181回 WORKSHOP報告(9月15日) / 参加者50名

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《 今回のworkshop 》
○workshop参加人数:50名(うち新人の方:3名)
○【前半】:”Healthy Eating Habits
○【後半】:”Police Brutality”
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[今週のマテリアル]
≪FIRST HALF≫
Healthy Eating Habits

Eating habits create our body and the energy for being active. Every day we can make choices for ourselves about the food we eat, and the choice make a real difference to our ability. Eating well along with being active can also lower our risk of disease and help us reach and maintain our health.
Healthy eating means eating a variety of foods from the four food groups (Vegetables and Fruits, Grains, Milk and milk products and Lean meat and alternatives) to feel good. A moderate amount of food depends on one’s age, sex, and activity level should also be considered.
This time, we would like you to discuss healthy eating habits.

1, Do you have any typical nutrition you preferentially take? For example, you take protein so that you could build your body.
2, What do you know about so-called “superfoods”? And do you think they actually boost your health?
3, Do you eat when you feel stressed, unhappy, angry or bored?
4, Where do you go to buy food, at supermarkets, convenient stores, organic food shops or other?
5, What type of food do you preferentially buy, pre-cooked foods, fresh foods, frozen foods, canned foods or other?
6, Describe your physical activity during working hours:
・seated or standing position; few physical activities (e.g. office employee, laboratory assistant, shop assistant, precision engineer, driver, assembly-line work)
・moderate physical activities (e.g. car mechanic, waiter, painter, electrician, nurse, housewife/househusband, gardener, postman)
・demanding physical activities (e.g. farmer, forester, builder, mason, carpenter, roofer, sportsman)
7, How do your eating habit routines in holidays differ from that in working days?

≪LATTER HALF≫
Police Brutality

●History

The term “police brutality” was in use in the American press as early as 1872, when the Chicago Tribune reported on the beating of a civilian under arrest at the Harrison Street Police Station.
Cases of police brutality appear to have been frequent then, with the routine bludgeoning of citizens by patrolmen armed with nightsticks or blackjacks.
Large-scale incidents of brutality were associated with labor strikes, such as the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, the Pullman Strike of 1894, the Lawrence textile strike of 1912, the Ludlow massacre of 1914, the Steel strike of 1919, and the Hanapepe massacre of 1924.
Portions of the populations may perceive the police to be oppressors. In addition, there is a perception that victims of police brutality often belonging to relatively powerless groups, such as minorities, the disabled, the young, and the poor.
In March 1991, members of the Los Angeles Police Department harshly beat an African American suspect, Rodney King, while a white civilian videotaped the incident, leading to extensive media coverage and criminal charges against several of the officers involved. In April 1992, hours after the four police officers involved were acquitted at trial, the Los Angeles riots of 1992 commenced, causing 53 deaths, 2,383 injuries, more than 7,000 fires, damage to 3,100 businesses, and nearly $1 billion in financial losses. After facing federal trial, two of the four officers were convicted and received 32-month prison sentences. The case was widely seen as a key factor in the reform of the Los Angeles Police Department.
According to data released by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011), between 2003 and 2009 at least 4,813 people died in the process of being arrested by local police. Of the deaths classified as law enforcement homicides, 2,876 deaths occurred of which 1,643 or 57.1% of the people who died were “people of color”.

●Rights to resistance in law

Police brutality entails serious violations of the human rights to life and physical security. In accordance with human rights law, victims have a right to forcibly resist police brutality where absolutely necessary to prevent serious and irreparable harm. Notably, police brutality entailing extrajudicial killings, torture and inhuman treatment may be resisted, but not unlawful arrest for which due process can be sought before the courts.
There has been a notable lack of commitment to addressing the violation of civilians’ rights, with Amnesty International reporting that in 1998/1999 very few people who committed a violation of human rights were brought to justice. This was worsened by the fact that many people who made a complaint against police were brought up on counter-charges such as resisting arrest, defamation and assault.
Incidents of police brutality seem to still be occurring at a consistent rate, however it is yet to be seen whether the trial of body cameras will make a difference to the number of incidents occurring or to the number of police who are prosecuted for misconduct. Additionally, there needs to be more work done by the government to break down negative social stereotypes that can lead to prejudice, racial profiling and the kind of aggressive hatred which is the driving force behind many instances of police brutality.
On a whole, America is moving slowly towards eradicating police brutality, however there needs to be much more done in order to ensure the rights of citizens are sufficiently protected.

●Cases

Police officers are legally permitted to use force, and their superiors – and the public – expect them to do so.
In dealing largely with disorderly elements of the society, some people working in law enforcement may gradually develop an attitude or sense of authority over society, particularly under traditional reaction-based policing models; in some cases the police believe that they are above the law.
There are many reasons as to why police officers can sometimes be excessively aggressive. It is thought that some personality traits make some officers more susceptible to the use of excessive force than others. In one study, police psychologists were surveyed on officers who had used excessive force. The information obtained allowed the researchers to develop unique types of officers, only one of which was similar to the bad apple stereotype. These include personality disorders, previous traumatic job-related experience, young inexperienced or macho officers; officers who learn inappropriate patrol styles, and officers with personal problems.
Phone tapping and business raids are a common practice in the country, and often fail to give due process to citizens. Proper investigations of police officials still remains lacking by standards.
Major political and social movements have involved excessive force by police, including the civil rights movement of the 1960s, anti-war demonstrations, the War on Drugs, and the Global War on Terrorism.

●Investigation

In England and Wales an independent organization known as the Independent Police Complaints Commission investigates reports of police misconduct. They automatically investigate any deaths caused by, or thought to be caused by, police action.
In the United States, police are increasingly using police body-worn cameras during this Age of Ferguson. Since Michael Brown’s death in Ferguson, Missouri, the US Department of Justice has made a call to action for police departments across the nation to implement body-worn cameras into their departments so further investigation will be possible.

●How it is measured

Police brutality is measured based on the accounts of people who have experienced or seen it, as well as the juries who are present for trials involving police brutality cases. This is because there is no way to quantify the use of excessive force for any particular situation. Because police brutality is relative to a situation, it depends on if the suspected person(s) is(are) resisting. Out of the people who were surveyed about their account with the police brutality in 2008, only about 12% felt as if they had been resisting. Although police force itself cannot be quantified, the opinion of brutality among various races, genders, and ages can. African Americans, women, and younger people are more likely to have negative opinions about police than Caucasians, men, and middle-aged to elderly individuals.

Questions
1 Analysis – What is the meaning of police brutality?
2 Compare – What are the differences between police brutality in Western and Eastern cultures?
3 Contrast – What are the similarities between police brutality in Western and Eastern cultures?
4 Effect – What is the result of police brutality on your society?
5 Clarification – Explain how police brutality affects your community.
6 Solution – How to solve this issue?

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