《 今回のworkshop 》
○【前半】：”Knowing how you prefer to learn”
○【後半】：”The Kuril Islands dispute also known as Northern Territories dispute”
前半は”Knowing how you prefer to learn”、後半は”The Kuril Islands dispute also known as Northern Territories dispute”というタイトルでそれぞれディスカッションを行います。
【注意】前半については、workshop参加前にマテリアル中にあるLEARNING STYLE判定のためのアンケートに回答し、得点集計を行い、事前にご自身のLEARNING STYLEの判定を終えておくことが前提となります。当日ディスカッション中に判定を行う時間はありませんので、必ず事前に判定を終えておいてください。また、アンケートに回答する前に、ディスカッションの設問のQ0を読んでおいてください。
The Trainer’s Handbook updated edition, Karen Lawson, Pfeiffer, 2009
Knowing how you prefer to learn
The people you will surround yourself with will either make or break your company. You might have the privilege of picking your partners and employees and you might have to inherit others. When hiring people or picking partners, most focus on the other person’s technical abilities and track record. When it comes to personality, most of us go only as far as evaluating how likeable the person is or how well we think we will get along with him/her. And vice versa. You might experience frustration when your supervisor or instructors do not teach to your preferred method of learning. You might think the class is boring, the instructor is bad, or that you just are not able to grasp the information. Knowing how you prefer to learn will give you a greater advantage in your workplace or school. And there is a better way to pick the right personality. Let’s start by defining personality. Below questioner defines personality as the individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling a behaving.
Instructions for LEARNING STYLE Questionnaire
For each of the questions below rank the alternatives A through D from 4 – the phrase MOST like you, through to 1 – the phrase LEAST like you.
eg: Question The meal I prefer eating is …
1 A Breakfast
4 B Lunch
2 C Dinner
3 D Afternoon Tea
Question 1 When solving problems, I prefer to …
A Take a step-by step approach
B Take immediate action
C Consider the impact on others
D Make sure I have all the facts
Question 2 As a learner, I prefer to …
A Listen to a lecture
B Work in small groups
C Read articles & case studies
D Participate in role plays
Question 3 When the trainer asks a question to which I know the answer, I …
A Let others answer first
B Offer an immediate response
C Consider whether my answer will be received favorably
D Think carefully about my answer before responding
Question 4 In a group discussion I …
A Encourage others to offer their opinions
B Question others’ opinions
C Readily offer my opinion
D Listen to others before offering my opinion
Question 5 I learn best from activities in which I …
A Can interact with others
B Remain uninvolved
C Take a leadership role
D Can take my time
Question 6 During lectures I like to listen for …
A Practical ‘how to’ tips
B Logical points
C The main idea
D Stories & anecdotes
Question 7 To impress me a trainer should …
A Have extensive knowledge & expertise
B Have personality & style
C Use a variety of methods & activities
D Be organized & in control
Question 8 I prefer information to be presented …
A As a model – such as a flow chart
B Using bullet points
C With detailed explanations
D Accompanied by examples
Question 9 I learn best when I …
A See relationships among ideas, events & situations
B Interact with others
C Receive practical tips
D Observe a demonstration or video
Question 10 Before attending a training program, I ask myself, “Will I …?”
A Get practical tips to help me in my job
B Receive lots of information
C Have to participate
D Learn something new
Question 11 After attending a training session, I …
A Tend to think about what I’ve learned
B Am enthusiastic about putting my new learning into action
C Reflect on the experience as a whole
D Tell others about what I’ve learned & experienced
Question 12 The training method I dislike the most is …
A Participating in small groups
B Listening to a lecture
C Reading & analyzing case studies
D Participating in role plays
Instructions for LEARNING STYLE Scoring Sheet
Record your responses in the table below, then total each column. The higher the number of a column the more you prefer that particular learning style. Conversely, the lower the number of a column, the less you like that learning style.
Feeler Observer Thinker Doer
01 C 01 A 01 D 01 B
02 B 02 A 02 C 02 D
03 C 03 A 03 D 03 B
04 A 04 D 04 B 04 C
05 A 05 B 05 D 05 C
06 D 06 C 06 B 06 A
07 B 07 D 07 A 07 C
08 D 08 A 08 C 08 B
09 B 09 D 09 A 09 C
10 D 10 C 10 B 10 A
11 D 11 C 11 A 11 B
12 C 12 A 12 D 12 B
Total Total Total Total
LEARNING STYLE PROFILES
Feelers are very people-oriented. They are expressive and focus on feelings and emotions. They enjoy affective learning and gravitate toward learning experiences that explore people’s attitudes and emotions. Feelers thrive in an open, unstructured learning environment and appreciate the opportunity to work in groups. They like exercises which allow participants to share their opinions and experiences.
Observers like to watch and listen. They tend to be reserved and quiet, and will take their time before acting or participating in class. When Observers do decide to contribute an opinion, or answer a question, they are generally right on target. They enjoy learning experiences that allow them to consider a variety of ideas and opinions. They also thrive on learning through discovery.
Thinkers rely on logic and reason. They like having opportunities to share ideas and concepts. They prefer activities that require them to analyze and evaluate. Thinkers will question the rationale behind an activity, and will challenge statements that they perceive to be too general or without substance. Most thinkers prefer to work independently and question the relevance of role plays and simulations.
Doers like to be actively involved in the learning process. They will take charge in group activities and tend to dominate discussions. Doers like being given opportunities to practice what they’ve learned, and are particularly interested in understanding how they are going to apply their new knowledge in the real world. They like information to be presented clearly and concisely, and have a tendency to become impatient with drawn-out discussions.
What you should know about and do with personality types:
1- A person will have different degrees of each personality type. Some will be dominated by a particular type while others will have a balance between two or more.
– Identify which personality type(s) you are. Rank yourself on the four types by splitting 100 points on the four types (e.g. You might be 40 Thinker, 30 Organizer, 20 Doer, and 10 Feeler).
2- There is no “good” or “bad” type of personality. Each personality has unique attributes that make them special and capable in certain circumstances.
– Figure out your strengths and match your work to leverage them. Identify the attributes you need and pick people that have those strengths (e.g. Hire an Organizer if your processes need to be organized). Make sure you give everyone an equal chance to leverage his/her strength rather than fit them to your style.
3- Each type has a unique communication style. For example, a Feeler will take criticism personally, but will get excited from a simple praise. A Doer will get annoyed at extended talking and will want to get straight to the point.
– Understand the person’s dominant type and cater how you communicate to match his/her personality style. If you are dealing with a Feeler, be sensitive to his/her feelings and spend some time conversing before getting into business. Get straight to the point with a Doer.
Q0. Before the self-assessment, what did you look for when hiring someone or picking a partner?
Q1. What is your learning style according to above questionnaire? What do you think of it?
Q2. How was your experience working with different personality types?
Q3. After the self-assessment, what are you going to look for when hiring someone or picking a partner?
The Kuril Islands dispute also known as Northern Territories dispute
Vladimir Putin drops hints about a solution to the Kuril dispute
【At the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok and the G20 summit in Hangzhou, Russian President Vladimir Putin suggested that a decision to sign a peace treaty with Japan had been made, but added that the negotiations were still ongoing. One of the basic options is, apparently, the joint declaration signed by the USSR and Japan in 1956.】
On the sidelines of the G20 summit in Hangzhou, China, Russian President Vladimir Putin said that a compromise on the Southern Kuril Island territorial dispute could be achieved. A starting point is a joint declaration between the USSR and Japan in 1956. It mentions the transfer of two Southern Kuril Islands to Japan.
“The agreement, however, had many blank spots,” Putin said. “For example, it is unclear what conditions are required for the transfer, and who has sovereignty over these islands.” These questions, obviously, are the main stumbling blocks in the territorial problem, which Moscow and Tokyo have been plagued with since the end of World War II.
＜Why Russia will not return the Southern Kurils to Japan＞
Speaking last week at the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe urged Putin to settle the bilateral dispute. “Let’s put an end to this abnormal situation that has existed for 70 years, and together begin to build a new era of Russian-Japanese relations that will last for the next 70 years,” Abe said.
The problem of the Lower Kuril ridge
After Japan’s surrender in September 1945, the islands that belonged to Japan following the Russo-Japanese Treaty of 1855, – Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan and the Habomai group – became part of the USSR. Japan refused to recognize the jurisdiction of the Soviet side. The countries never signed a peace treaty.
In 1956, Moscow and Tokyo reestablished diplomatic relations and said in a joint declaration that a peace treaty would be prepared. The text of the declaration to reestablish relations suggested that the USSR give Habomai and Shikotan Islands to Japan after the conclusion of a peace treaty. This is the document that Putin referred to at the G20 summit.
Despite the fact that in 1956 the two chambers of the Japanese Parliament ratified the declaration, the Japanese side, as was recently underlined by Putin, refused to implement it. After a diplomatic scandal in 1960, the Japanese side stated that it would “relentlessly pursue” the return of all the islands. Since then, the dialogue was interrupted.
＜To prevent compromise＞
Over the years the Japanese public has developed an absolute consensus on the sovereignty of what they called the Northern Territories.
Georgy Kunadze, former deputy head of the Soviet and then Russia Foreign Ministry, who was involved in the negotiations with the Japanese in the 1990s, says a resolution of the Kuril issue is difficult as both sides are not ready to change their positions.
This year, Russia and Japan will mark the 60th anniversary of the 1956 declaration. This milestone could be used as a good opportunity for a major shift in the issue of the Kuril Islands. Both parties recognize this declaration, which is the current legal document having the character of an international treaty.
According to Pavel Gudev, a leading researcher at the Center for North American studies, Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), a diplomatic breakthrough would be possible if the Japanese side altered its irreconcilable position.
If this shift happens then there could be a number of possible solutions, says Gudev. One of them is so-called deferred sovereignty. This means that the islands would come under the jurisdiction of Japan in 50 or even 100 years. A possible option is that Japan be given only the land without the surrounding waters, the expert added.
Given the fact, that currently the Kurils make the Sea of Okhotsk an inland sea of Russia, the parties could also agree to restrict navigation in the area to Russian and Japanese ships. Russia would demand that no military infrastructure be built there. Herein lies the problem. To get the Japanese to close the U.S. military base on Okinawa is almost impossible, Asia Times military analyst Grant Newsham wrote in a column (http://atimes.com/2015/10/us-military-bases-on-okinawa-still-an-essential-deterrent/).
“Okinawa is a perfect place from which to deploy and conduct a range of military operations to counter an aggressor or someone seeking to upset long established rules regarding freedom of navigation and flight, and even international boundaries,” Newsham wrote.
A potential American desire to have a base close to Russian waters may be an obstacle in the settlement of the dispute. However, there is a possibility that the parties will announce a compromise on the Kuril Islands during the state visit of Putin to Japan in December.
Japan’s Basic Position
Q1) What do you know about this issue? Please share the historical fact.
Q2) Which islands are included in so-called ”Kuril Islands”? What are the Japan’s and Russia’s position?
Q3) What is an obstacles to sign a peace treaty of Japan and Russia?
Q4) What do you think is a fair solution?
Q5) What do you think is a possible solution?
Q6) What do you expect from Putin’s visit this month.
Q7) If you have more time, please discuss other territorial issues in Japan.